Category Archives: 2 way radio

2 way radio

MH370: Motorola cargo comprised walkie-talkies, besides batteries and chargers

Again another piece i thought was interesting on the subject of Radio’s, what would you do if i didn’t post this ehh? you would have to check out the original content, and the chances you found it would be slim, so deem yourself lucky that i’ve shared this wonderful article with you.

A two-tonne consignment aboard the ill-fated  MH370 flight is believed to comprise walkie-talkies, lithium ion batteries and their chargers.

The cargo manifest released in the preliminary report of the incident shows that the plane was carrying 200kg of the batteries while the balance is said to be “radio accessories and chargers”.

The revelation by Malaysia Airlines confirms a report by fz.com on March 25 that revealed that the shipper of the lithium ion batteries, walkie-talkies and chargers was Motorola.

Quoting a source at that time, fz.com reported that the goods were shipped from the factory’s facility in Penang.

The goods were sent by lorries to the KL International Airport, and based on the master air waybill, the items were sent from Penang on March 6.

Of the 2.4 tonnes that was shipped from the plant in Penang, only about 200kg comprised the batteries.

Though the cargo manifest and master air waybill indicated lithium ion batteries, it did not reveal that walkie-talkies made up the rest of the consignment.

MAS later said in a statement that they were “radio accessories and chargers”.

The air waybill prepared by NNR Global Logistics Sdn Bhd on behalf of its client, Motorola, showed that two loads were packed, one being 1,990kg for 133 pieces and another being 463kg for 67 pieces.

The batteries and accompanying goods were later shipped by NNR Global Logistics, while the balance divided into “13 packages”, were forwarded by Kerry Logistics (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd.

The cargo manifest showed the plane carried 9,947kg in three large shipments.

While mangosteens from Muar, Johor weighed the heaviest at 4,566kg and the 2,453kg worth of lithium ion batteries and accompanying goods (written up only as “consolidated”) are more or less accounted for, the other 2,250kg of “consolidated” items have sparked interest.

A source familiar with aviation forwarding industry practices said the mystery surrounding the cargo manifest and the exact loads that went onto the ill-fated MH370 can only be resolved if MAS revealed the house air waybills.

The source added that without the house air waybill and the packing list, the cargo manifest and the master air waybill were redundant because only those two documents would properly state the goods and the shipper.

“It is understandable that MAS cannot reveal the other two documents simply because they may not have it.

 “As for the house air waybill and packing list, the Customs Department, the freight forwarder and the shipper should come forward and reveal them,” he said.

Days after the Beijing-bound flight went missing along with 239 passengers and the crew on March 8, Malaysia Airlines chief executive officer Ahmad Jauhari Yahya said the plane was carrying 200kg of “small” lithium ion batteries.

He said the load was not considered hazardous as it was packaged in accordance to safety regulations.

In response, the aviation source said though the shipment contained batteries and declared as dangerous goods, they are within specified permissible levels.

“The dangerous threshold for lithium ion batteries is not measured by its weight but its watt per hour measurement. For instance, a handphone probably would measure 100 grams watt per hour which is not lethal.

“The watt per hour measurement indicates the battery activity by the hour,” he had said while cautioning that forwarding companies and shippers often failed to declare “hidden dangerous goods” in the shipment.

These include flammable liquids, lubricants, corrosive and oxidising materials that could and have resulted in fires onboard flights, he said.

Read more: http://www.fz.com/content/mh370-motorola-cargo-comprised-walkie-talkies-besides-batteries-and-chargers#ixzz31gub3d3V

DMR Tier III: the open standard for radio communications

What would you know, this website About keyword is definitely interesting, i look forward to you enjoy it

Private mobile radio is fast becoming an essential communications solution to support the operational needs of utilities companies, airports, oil and gas pipelines and emergency services.

When compared to public cellular services, it delivers improved coverage, reliability and resistance, contention, security, group communications and performance.

The digital landscape is crowded, though, with a number of public safety digital standards such as TETRA, P25 as well as low cost digital solutions including DMR (Digital Mobile Radio), dPMR (digital Private Mobile Radio), NXDN and PDT (Professional Digital Trunking).

DMR is coming out on top thanks to the open standard nature of DMR Tier III trunking, which is driving its emergence, ongoing development and adoption across global markets.

But do open standards matter? While open standards are less important in the small system market, they are critical to the long-term case for the radio system in the medium to large systems sector, and it is here that open standard DMR Tier III will dominate.

Essentially, DMR Tier III trunking features a control channel on each radio site and allocates traffic channels on demand making it frequency efficient and enabling a large number of users to share a relatively small number of channels. Radio sites can easily be inter-connected, usually using IP connections, making it possible to deploy systems ranging from a single site to hundreds of sites spread over a large geographical area.

The open standard way

The DMR standard includes the facility for implementers to provide ‘manufacturer extensions’, enabling manufacturers to provide proprietary features within the framework of the DMR air interface definition. This allows them to complement the standard set of DMR call functions with their specific facilities.

This has the advantage of enabling customers to request specific functionalities to support the manufacturer’s business operation needs and also enables them to provide innovative features that differentiate their solutions from others implementing the same standard.

One disadvantage to this offering is that interoperability can only be possible for those features that are fully defined by the standard and that customers using manufacturer extensions are effectively locked in to a single manufacturer solution rather than enjoying the vendor choice that a standard enables.

To address the pros and cons, the DMR Association (DMRA) has struck a balance between robustness and cost with their interoperability process, which focuses on testing the conformance of products against the published standard that describes the over-air signalling. The DMRA facilitates testing between a terminal manufacturer and an infrastructure manufacturer, and the two parties carry out the testing against a standard test specification. Test results and logs of all messages sent over air are recorded during the testing and then are inspected by one or more independent third parties during a detailed review meeting. Only after the independent third parties are satisfied that the equipment under test has conformed to the open standard specification is an interoperability certificate issued.

Ongoing standards development

Whilst this facility can be useful, extensive use of manufacturer extensions would call into question whether DMR was a standard that delivers interoperability (and therefore vendor choice) or whether it results in proprietary solutions rather than following an open standard.

The answer to this lies in the work of the DMR Association. The DMRA has a technical working group – made up of competing manufacturers – who collaborate to ensure the standard succeeds. Any proprietary features from the manufacturers, which are believed to have wide market appeal or have useful features the standard doesn’t yet specify, are debated in the group. They are then developed to further advance the standard to the benefit all of the manufacturers and indeed the customers who choose to implement DMR technology.

The DMRA is further developing the standard to meet future market demands by identifying important new features and ensuring these are developed and included in new releases of the ETSI standards.

The future of DMR Tier III

Open standards are critical to providing long-term support and stability to customers. The adoption of the standard by a critical mass ensures its longevity over other similar competing technologies that have lower levels of support by offering the market vendor choice and maintaining low costs.

Is DMR Tier III radio communications’ open standard for the future? Yes. Due to DMRA’s authority, the robust and well-supported interoperability programme and the long-term commitment of a large number of manufacturers, it is emerging as the most successful low cost digital technology for complex projects – and therefore the open standard that no other private mobile radios can contend with.

Source – http://www.telecomstechnews.com/news/2014/apr/25/dmr-tier-iii-open-standard-radio-communications/

Motorola Solutions Adds RFID-Enabled Knobs to Radios

With very little information on the internet about Walkie talkie’s, it is very rare when we get a chance to re post, with permission, an article from this industry.

The volume knob, which can be retrofitted into the company’s Mototrbo two-way radios, enables users to conduct inventory counts of 50 radios in six seconds, instead of four minutes.

Two of Motorola Solutions‘ business divisions combined forces this year to develop an RFID-based solution known as RFID Fleet Management, for managing the locations of its Mototrbo two-way radios. The system features a volume-control knob with a built-in RFID tag, enabling users to locate radios more efficiently than having to manually search through several models, reading serial numbers or scanning bar codes. The solution also includes Motorola EPC Gen 2 ultrahigh-frequency (UHFRFID readers. Software to manage read data, as well as training, support and service, are being provided by Motorola’s reseller and solution-provider partners. Beginning at the end of this month, the new knobs will be shipped to customers, upon request, as a retrofit for their existing radios.

Motorola Solutions sells its Mototrbo two-way radios to customers, such as product manufacturers, and other companies with mobile personnel. Motorola Solutions’ Mototrbo customers include organizations that rent the radios to the end users. Both types of companies can have inventories of hundreds or thousands of radios, which must be accounted for periodically—at the end of each day, weekly or monthly, for example—to confirm that the radios have not gone missing, and that every user returns the correct units. Without RFID, each radio assigned or rented out must have its bar code scanned or its serial number recorded in order to create a record of which radio was provided to which employee or company, and when this occurred.

With the RFID Fleet Management solution, the radio’s original volume control knob (left) is replaced with an RFID-tagged version (right).

According to Carrie Angelico, Motorola Solutions’ senior channel business development manager for data-capture solutions, Mototrbo users told Motorola how exhaustive the inventory-management process could be, and the company’s radio division began discussing a solution with its own RFID division. The result is a volume-control knob containing a Motorola UHF RFID Custom Tag, made with an Omni-ID tag, encoded with a unique ID number that can be associated with the radio’s own serial number in the user’s software.

The solution is designed to be a retrofit option for those with Mototrbo two-way radios. Users first acquire the RFID-enabled knob as a replacement for the existing volume knob. The knob’s built-in RFID tag can then be read via any of Motorola Solutions’ handheld or fixed readers, including a desktop interrogator that could be used for checking radios into and out of a storage area.

– See more at: http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?11706#sthash.xhADvZzf.dpuf

We Have A Look Under The Bonnet Of The IC-4088SR

From IcomUK website’ “IC-4088SR” (26 January 2007)

PMR446 Handheld Transceiver

Designed to meet the demands of the licence free PMR 446 service, the IC-4088SR builds on its predecessor’s functionality, features and operating performance.

Featuring a high level of flexibility, the IC-4088SR allows instant communication between members of a group in and around buildings and over short distances. This makes it the perfect tool for keeping in touch with friends, family and work colleagues whilst in close proximity to them. The applications for the PMR446 service are almost limitless and the IC-4088SR would be suitable for camping, golf, catering, use in sports centres, on building sites, catering, events management, neighbourhood watch, factories, farms etc. What’s more it is water-resistant making it ideal for rambling, trekking, or for use on inland waterways etc.

An optional external charger socket or cigarette lighter lead allows you to charge and operate the IC-4088SR allowing you to use the IC-4088SR when and whenever you like. 

The IC-4088SR has all the hallmarks of a quality product. It is well designed, easy to use and very robust. Its strong body makes it ideal for outdoor activity enthusiasts, for example. In fact the IC-4088SR is ergonomically designed and there are an absolute minimum number of switches making operation quick and intuitive. The large, easy to read LCD shows operating information at a glance with clear status icons such as ‘low battery’ and ‘timer’ that are easily recognisable. 

In addition to its ease of use and aesthetic design the IC-4088SR is packed full of communication features that provides the user with a high level of usability and convenience. Among these useful functions are a simple voice scrambler that will provide secure private communication and a handy ‘Automatic Transponder’ function which automatically warns you if the other radios are out of range. 

Other useful operating functions include a call ring function, which allows you to send a ring tone when calling another party – similar to using a mobile phone. Ten different ring types can be selected from. To ensure clear communications with other radios, you can select from 8 different radio channels and 38 different group codes, giving more than 300 different combinations to choose from. A Smart Ring function is also included which lets you know whether your call has got all the way through.

The IC-4088SR transceiver is available with charger and four rechargeable batteries. Two commercial multi-packs are also available.

 

  • Rugged construction and high performance antenna
  • External DC power jack
  • Built-in voice scrambler
  • Simple to use for everyone
  • Economical three alkaline cells
  • Splash resistant construction
  • Built-in CTCSS encoder and decoder
  • Automatic transponder system
  • Smart-ring function
  • Call-ring function
  • Power save function
  • Low battery indicator
  • Automatic power-off timer (0.5–2 hours)
  • Scan function
  • PTT hold function
  • Variable time-out-timer (1–30 minutes)

Orwigsburg council approves radio purchase for communications system update

This was posted a few days ago and I thought it was interesting

The borough council approved the purchase of six radios to use with the recent emergency communications system updates to the police department at a cost of $27,000 at its Wednesday meeting.

Under new federal regulations, the county’s emergency management communications network must be converted to a narrowband frequency to make it more efficient. The county is in the process of complying with Federal Communications Commission-required upgrades to emergency communications.

The borough ordered six Motorola APX6000 radios from Green’s Communications, Pottsville, on Friday. Three radios will be placed in the cars and three are for officers to carry.

The radios could take four weeks to arrive, borough Manager Mike Lonergan said.

In other news, the council also voted to approve a proposal by the Exeter Ambulance Association, Berks County, for two Automated External Defibrillators.

The cost for the AEDs is $4,200. They will replace one for the police department that is at least 10 years old, Lonergan said.

Also at the meeting, Lonergan said he will apply for a $40,000 grant through the state Department of Conservation and Natural Resources for new playground equipment at Community Memorial Hall, mulch and other park maintenance.

The playground equipment that is in good shape, such as the jungle gym, merry-go-round and seesaw, would not need to be replaced. However, the swing set is about 20 years old and could be removed or relocated to another park in the borough, Lonergan said.

The deadline to apply for the grant is Wednesday, and the borough could know by the fall if the grant is awarded. A $20,000 match by the borough would be required and would be paid through by funds designated for recreation use.

In other council action, approval was granted for Lonergan to prepare a final agreement between the borough and Schuylkill County Municipal Authority for the supplemental operation and maintenance services for the borough water and wastewater systems after review by the borough solicitor Frank Tamulonis and an engineer from SCMA.

The cost to the borough for the service is $1,850 per month and would likely start this month. The borough previously gave approval to execute a memorandum of understanding with the authority to provide the aforementioned support.

The council also authorized Tamulonis to advertise an ordinance for declarations of taking or using eminent domain to obtain easements for the safe routes to schools project if necessary. The project would involve curbs and sidewalks from downtown Market Street to Blue Mountain Elementary East along Red Dale Road for a total of about 1,200 feet, Lonergan said.

The borough was awarded a $303,000 grant in 2009 through the Safe Routes to Schools Program through the state Department of Transportation.

“We do not anticipate the ordinance being necessary,” Lonergan said. However, if it is, the borough would compensate property owners.

 

Why Can’t I Use a Radio or a Phone on an Airplane?

The real reason is that the signals generated by your radio receiver (yes, it generates signals as well as receives them) can interfere with the aeroplane’s navigation equipment.

In an article for ‘The Straight Dope’, published in 1987, Cecil Adams (who ran a similar, but far superior, column to this one) explained it far better than I could. He said,

“Most modern receivers use something called a “local oscillator,” which is sort of an internal transmitter. The oscillator generates signal A, which is mixed with the somewhat raw incoming signal B to produce nice, easy-to-work-with signal C. There’s usually some sort of shielding around the oscillator, but it’s not always effective and sometimes errant signals leak out to make life difficult for other radio equipment nearby. If the other equipment happens to be an aircraft navigation device, somebody could wind up digging furrows with a $25 million plow. So do your bit for air safety and bring a tape player instead.”

Of course, you can replace ‘tape player’ with ‘iPod’ and not lose anything in the discussion…Feasibly, you could replace ‘iPod’ with ‘smartphone’ and lose even less.

However, the oscillator isn’t always going to cause a major problem, in fact, 9 times out of 10 you’ll be fine, but is it really worth endangering the lives of every passenger aboard the plane just so you can catch up on the football results?

Any answer other than ‘no’ would be inhumanly monstrous. Unless, of course, its a penalty shootout…

Actually, I’m over-exaggerating somewhat, in fact, not even your mobile would be likely to cause that much damage. In theory it could, but the reality for phones being banned is a little bit less terrifying, as www.Wired.com’s Cliff Kuang explains:

“Sure, your mobile can interfere with avionics — in theory. But in practice, it’s far from likely. Cockpits and communications systems have been protected against electromagnetic meddling through safeguards like shielded wiring and support structures since the 1960s. So why the resistance? Part of it, naturally, comes from the call carriers. When phones ping for signals at 35,000 feet, they can hit hundreds of towers at once, necessitating complicated parsing of roaming agreements. Providers don’t want the hassle if they’re not being properly compensated, so the government has left the plane ban in place”.

 So, essentially, it’s not worth the risk to use a radio receiver on a plane and you can’t make calls because it would be a bugger to regulate, as well as a logistical nightmare to deal with, for the phone companies. That’s about it, really.

REACH EVERYONE, EVERYWHERE WITH MOTOTRBO SYSTEMS

The Mototrbo two way radio has numerous uses, but it works best at communicating 2 or more people between one another, be it leisure or commerce, long distance communication can be critical in many different environments. This promotional article was originally a PDF on the motorola Internet site.

Want to increase the number of users on your system or extend coverage to another site? Connect workers in different locations or access voice and data without adding new frequencies? MOTOTRBO has a scalable system that fits your workforce and your facilities.  Continue reading REACH EVERYONE, EVERYWHERE WITH MOTOTRBO SYSTEMS

Boots the Chemist Goes Digital with MOTOTRBO

Boots Enjoys Future Proofed Communications in a Single Handset at National Stores Service Centre in Nottingham

Boots the Chemist is the United Kingdom’s leading health and beauty retailer. The company supplies its 2,600 outlets in the UK and Ireland from an 800,000 sq ft Stores Service Centre (SSC) in Nottingham. The SSC stocks thousands of

product lines and is set to handle Boots’ entire range by 2009. It operates 16 hours a day, six days a week and services many stores on an almost daily basis. Continue reading Boots the Chemist Goes Digital with MOTOTRBO

I recently started watching NASCAR and I was wondering how the drivers communicate with the pit crew?

(Asked by Paul from Dublin, Ireland)

Y’know, I visited your fine city of Dublin many years ago and had a wonderful time. It is a truly magical place.

Anyway, on to your question….

NASCAR drivers use a unique radio system that is built in to their crash helmets. These are occasionally customized to suit the individual wearer. In addition to this, there is a push-to-talk button (exactly like the one found on a walkie-talkie), which is situated in the steering wheel. A wiring harness connects the various components together and a separate battery operates the whole thing. The signal is broadcast via a whip antenna that is attached to the roof of the car. In this fashion, NASCAR drivers are able to communicate with pit crews. Continue reading I recently started watching NASCAR and I was wondering how the drivers communicate with the pit crew?

Innovative or Simply Post-Modern? New Paradigms in the Study of “Radio”

Radio is the wireless transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic radiation of a frequency significantly below that of visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 30 kHz to 300 GHz. These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space.
Information, such as sound, is carried by systematically changing some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form.
Etymology
The etymology of “radio” or “radiotelegraphy” reveals that it was called “wireless telegraphy”, which was shortened to “wireless” in Britain. The prefix radio- in the sense of wireless transmission, was first recorded in the word radioconductor, a description provided by the French physicist Édouard Branly in 1897. It is based on the verb to radiate .
The word “radio” also appears in a 1907 article by Lee De Forest. It was adopted by the United States Navy in 1912, to distinguish radio from several other wireless communication technologies, such as the photophone. The term became common by the time of the first commercial broadcasts in the United States in the 1920s. The term was adopted by other languages in Europe and Asia. British Commonwealth countries continued to commonly use the term “wireless” until the mid-20th century, though the magazine of the BBC in the UK has been called Radio Times ever since it was first published in the early 1920s.
In recent years the more general term “wireless” has gained renewed popularity through the rapid growth of short-range computer networking, e.g., Wireless Local Area Network, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth, as well as mobile telephony, e.g., GSM and UMTS. Today, the term “radio” specifies the actual type of transceiver device or chip, whereas “wireless” refers to the lack of physical connections; one talks about radio transceivers, but another talks about wireless devices and wireless sensor networks.
Processes
Radio systems used for communications will have the following elements. With more than 100 years of development, each process is implemented by a wide range of methods, specialized for different communications purposes.
Transmitter and modulation
Each system contains a transmitter. This consists of a source of electrical energy, producing alternating current of a desired frequency of oscillation. The transmitter contains a system to modulate some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it. This modulation might be as simple as turning the energy on and off, or altering more subtle properties such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or combinations of these properties. The transmitter sends the modulated electrical energy to a tuned resonant antenna; this structure converts the rapidly changing alternating current into an electromagnetic wave that can move through free space.
Amplitude modulation of a carrier wave works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in proportion to the information being sent. For example, changes in the signal strength can be used to reflect the sounds to be reproduced by a speaker, or to specify the light intensity of television pixels. It
was the method used for the first audio radio transmissions, and remains in use today. “AM” is often used to refer to the mediumwave broadcast band .
Frequency modulation varies the frequency of the carrier. The instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. Digital data can be sent by shifting the carrier’s frequency among a set of discrete values, a technique known as frequency-shift keying.
FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech . Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM.
Angle modulation alters the instantaneous phase of the carrier wave to transmit a signal. It is another term for Phase modulation.

Continue reading Innovative or Simply Post-Modern? New Paradigms in the Study of “Radio”